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At the time when he made his translation of Beowulf , he was Professor of Old German Literature at Bonn, whither he had been called because of his contributions to the study of Old German mythology.

As an original poet, Simrock is remembered for his Wieland der Schmied , and Gedichte Simrock wished to do for Beowulf what he had done for the Nibelungenlied , Walther von der Vogelweide , and Der arme Heinrich.

The diction of the version is, on the whole, characterized by simplicity and ease. These forms he sometimes used to the exclusion of simpler, or even 61 more literal, words.

The nature of the German language, however, keeps these from being as repulsive as they are in English, but they are sufficiently strange to mystify and annoy the reader.

He also preserved alliteration, believing that a fondness for that poetic adornment may be easily acquired, and that it is by no means inconsistent with the genius of modern tongues.

The notes to the translation contain discussions of the episodes and of the mythological personages of the poem. There is a discussion of the poetic worth of Beowulf , and an argument for the German origin of the poem.

This practice of inserting the Finnsburg fragment, lately revived by Hoffmann 3 , has been generally repudiated.

The translator acknowledges his indebtedness to the versions of Ettmüller and Grein. Yet, in spite of this, the book is not well known among German translations, and has never passed into a second edition.

Angelsächsisches Heldengedicht übersetzt von Moritz Heyne. Paderborn: Druck und Verlag von Ferd.

Schöningh, The name of Moritz Heyne is one of the most illustrious in the history of Beowulf scholarship. The Heyne editions of the text 1 have been standard for nearly forty years, 64 while the translation has been recently reprinted At the time when he printed his edition of the Beowulf, Heyne was a student at Halle, and but twenty-six years of age born 2.

In his work he had some assistance from Professor Leo 3 of Halle. The translation was founded on the text of At the time it was by far the best edition that had yet appeared.

It was furnished with an excellent glossary. The text had the advantage of the valuable work done by Grundtvig 4 in collating the two transcripts made by Thorkelin 5.

It thus came a stage nearer the MS. The differences between the two editions are not of much importance. The translation is in general, though not always, brought up to the late editions of the text, 65 and some changes are made for the improvement of the meter.

The first edition contains lines; the second The theory and aim of the translation are not changed at all. In this translation of the Beowulf , Heyne attempts to popularize what he considers the most beautiful of the Old English poems.

With this in view, Heyne put his translation out in a form that would make it accessible to all. This was in itself an innovation.

Heyne chose a new medium for his version, the unrimed iambic line. His aim being to get his book read, he avoided a literal translation, and rendered with commendable freedom, though not with inaccuracy.

He used no strange compounds, and shunned an unnatural verse. Thus he produced the most readable translation that has ever appeared in Germany.

Of his own attempt he says—. He has been criticized on all sides for his freedom. Yet the criticism is undeserved. Heyne is never paraphrastic—he never adds anything foreign to the poem.

He merely believes in translating the obscure as well as the simple ideas of his text. Da schwammt ihr hinaus in See ,. In the second place, the translation of the Old English phrase beadu-runen onband should be noticed, and compared with the translations of Ettmüller, Grein, and Simrock, who have respectively—.

Heyne is the only one who translates the phrase in such a way as to make the words intelligible to a reader unacquainted with Old English.

Finally, it should be noticed that the translation is quite as accurate as those which preceded it. Heyne certainly succeeded in his attempt to make the poem more intelligible to the general reader than it had ever been before.

There have been six—, , , , , ; the last two are by Dr. Adolf Socin. Heyne is at present Professor in the University of Göttingen.

In Beowulfs Beorh. See also supra, p. Beovulf Bärwelf. Das älteste deutsche Heldengedicht. Aus dem Angelsächsischen von Hans von Wolzogen.

Leipzig: Philipp Reclam, jun. There is no evidence that he had any special interest in Old English studies.

The translation is in alliterative measures, called by the translator imitative of the Old English. Von Wolzogen is concerned for this feature of his work, and is at pains to 69 give what he considers a full account of the original verse as well as a lengthy defence of alliteration.

Archaic touches are occasional. The account of the Fall of Hygelac and of Heardred, —96, is shifted to line p. So sagte Hunfrid 3 , der Sohn des Eckleif ,.

To give one example from the thousand that bear out the truth of this statement, we may cite line p. The translator is obliged at times to append footnotes explaining the scansion of his lines see pp.

The cesura is frequently not in evidence cf. See Vorbemerkung, p. No edition of the text of Beowulf had appeared in England since the work of Thorpe 1 , now twenty years 72 old.

The textual criticism of the Germans had, meanwhile, greatly advanced the interpretation of the poem. There was an opportunity, therefore, for an improved English edition which should incorporate the results of German scholarship.

This edition Mr. Thomas Arnold — undertook to supply. The Introduction contained a new theory of the origin of the poem 2.

But the important part of the book was the text and translation. There is no glossary 3. The notes are at the bottom of the page.

Here glossarial, textual, and literary information is bundled together. There is a very inadequate bibliography in the Introduction.

The translation is a literal prose version, printed under the text. It eschews unwieldy compounds, and makes no attempt to acquire an archaic flavor.

Supplied words are bracketed. Arnold had access to the MS. But, strangely enough, he did not make it the basis of his edition.

Of course the faded condition of the MS. In order to test the accuracy of these statements I have made a collation of the texts of Arnold, Thorpe, and the MS.

Yet there was no excuse at this time for the retention of many of these readings. Arnold makes almost no 74 reference to the work of Heyne, and incorporates none of his emendations.

Arnold himself did not emend the text in a single instance. The translation is literal, and its value is therefore in direct ratio to the value of the text, which has been discussed above.

A theory which the author continued to regard as partially tenable. See Notes on Beowulf London, , p. Contrast this with the editions of Heyne.

See p. See Amer. Journal of Philol. See Beowulfs Beorh , and p. Havre: Lepelletier, Other scholars, if they devoted themselves to English at all, studied chiefly the later periods of the literature 2.

This was the first scholarly attention that the poem received in France. The genius of Old English poetry is at the furthest possible remove from that of the French.

Had it been so intended, the translator would have rendered more literally. His introduction 4 proves that the book was addressed to the general reader rather than the student of Old English.

The Introduction deals with the nature of Old English poetry, and makes historical and critical remarks on the Beowulf. There are occasional notes explanatory of the text.

In his critical work the author is chiefly indebted to Grein 5 and Heyne 6. The translation, which is in prose, is characterized, as the author himself admits, by extreme freedom and occasional omission of words and phrases.

It has been customary, in speaking of the work of M. Botkine, to call attention to the numerous omissions. This is misleading. The passages which the translator has omitted are not the obscure episodes or the long digressions, but the metaphors, the parenthetical phrases, and especially kennings and similar appositives.

The principal passages which Botkine omits entirely are: ba; b; —; — The author seems to have been well acquainted with the scholarly work done on Beowulf up to his time.

He appears to follow, in general, the text of Heyne, not, however, invariably. If the translation is compared with the text, the reader will be struck by the characteristic beauty of the words omitted.

We may agree with the translator regarding the difficulty of rendering compound and kenning into French, and yet the very absence of an attempt to do this jeopardizes the value of the translation more than the omission of many episodes, for it brings it dangerously near to paraphrase.

A part of the story has been thrown away with the adjectives. The force and beauty of the passage are gone.

But there is another danger in this paraphrastic method. In omitting words and phrases, the translator will often misinterpret his original.

In attempting to simplify the Old English, he departs from the original 79 sense. Instances of this may be brought forward from the Finn episode:.

Botkine makes of this—. The rendering is not without its amusing features, chiefly illustrations of the inability of the French language to accommodate itself to typically Germanic expressions.

Save Michel. Paris, Leroux, Omits middan-geardes. Omits under heofonum. Omits lines — a. Omits wintrys wylum.

Lumsden 1. London: C. Lumsden, late Royal Artillery. Second edition, revised and corrected. London: Kegan Paul, Trench and Co.

In the first edition of the translation a number of passages were omitted. Some of these omissions were owing to corrupt text, some to extreme obscurity of the original, and some merely to the fact that the original was deemed uninteresting.

The principal omissions were: 83—86; —; —; —; —; —; ; —; — These passages were inserted in the second edition. Thus his work resembles that of Wackerbarth 2 ; and, like Wackerbarth, he couched his translation in ballad measures.

Lumsden does not vary his measure, but preserves the iambic heptameter throughout. His lines rime in couplets.

The Introduction and Notes contain popular expositions of the work of preceding scholars. Garnett has shown 5 that Lumsden ignored the text of Grein and the editions of Heyne.

These defects were remedied to some extent in the second edition. Lumsden himself never emends the text. The extract illustrates the paraphrastic nature of parts of the translation.

Lumsden frequently seems to feel it necessary to read a meaning into the obscure lines and 82 passages that do not easily lend themselves to translation; cf.

At line Lumsden translates:—. The passage is certainly obscure, and the readings are not all undoubted, but the words can never be tortured into meaning what Lumsden tries to make them mean.

But it would be manifestly unfair to judge a translation addressed to the general reader merely by scholarly tests. The work must make its appeal as a literary rendering.

The propriety of adopting a ballad measure may be questioned. Probably no measure could be found more unlike the Old English lines. Moreover, by reason of its long association with purely popular poetry, it constantly suggests the commonplace and the trivial.

But above all, it is reminiscent of a medievalism wholly different from that of Beowulf. The saving grace of the ballad measure is its readableness.

It is rather effective in passages not too dignified, calling for action. But in passages of elevation the line is found wanting:—.

See American Journal of Philology , ii. From the second edition. Garnett, M. In the second edition the translation was collated with the Grein-Wülker text, and wherever necessary, with the Zupitza Autotypes.

Additions were made to the bibliography:—. As has been pointed out above in the sections on Arnold 1 and Lumsden 2 , no satisfactory literal translation of Beowulf existed in English.

Furthermore, an American translation had never appeared. It was with a view to presenting the latest German interpretations of the poem 84 that Garnett prepared his literal version of the poem.

The original draft of the translation was made at St. In the second edition notes are added showing the variants from the Grein-Wülker text of Of this feature of his work Professor Garnett says:—.

The swimming-match with Breca. Joy in Heorot. The translation, in its revised form, is throughout a faithful version of the original text.

The rendering may be word for word, but it will not be idea for idea. Examples of this inadequacy may be given from the printed extract.

Had the poet simply meant to express the notion of grief , he would have used sorh , cearu , or some other common word. Examples of this sort can be brought forward from any part of the poem.

At line Garnett translates—. It would seem from the way in which the measure is used that it was a kind of second thought, incident upon the use of a line-for-line translation.

It is hard to read the lines as 87 anything but prose, and, if they appeared in any other form upon the page, it is to be questioned whether any one would have guessed that they were intended to be imitative.

The book received long and respectful reviews from the Germans. Professor Child and Henry Sweet expressed their approbation.

The book has passed through four editions. This cordial welcome has been due in large measure to the increasing attention given the poem in American colleges and secondary schools.

Being strictly literal, the book has been of value as a means of interpreting the poem. Beovulf, poema epico anglosassone del vii secolo, tradotto e illustrato dal Dott.

Giusto Grion, Socio Ordinario. Tomo XXII. Lucca: Tipografia Giusti, Full discussions of 1 Mito; 2 Storia; 3 Letteratura. The latter is a fairly complete bibliography of what had been done on Beowulf up to this time.

The translator makes use of all the texts and commentaries that had appeared up to his time, and even goes so far as to emend the text for himself cf.

The Notes are rather full. They are sometimes merely explanatory; sometimes there are discussions of the MS. The translation is literal; the medium an imitative measure of four principal stresses, varied occasionally by the expanded line.

The diction is simple. In purpose and method this version may be compared with that of Kemble 1 and of Schaldemose 2.

In each case the translator was introducing the poem to a foreign public, and it was therefore well that the translation should be literal in order that it might assist in the interpretation of the original.

There has been no further work done on the poem in Italy 3. While the verse is not strictly imitative in the sense that it preserves exactly the Old English system of versification, it aims to maintain the general movement of the original lines.

The four stresses are kept, save where a fifth is used to avoid monotony. Of a work by G. Beowulf, en fornengelsk hjeltedikt, öfversatt af Rudolf Wickberg.

Westervik, C. The translator begins his introduction with a discussion of the importance of Beowulf as a historical document.

For this reason he is especially interested in the episodes:—. The author constructs his own text. He explains p. At the Clarendon Press, February.

Some of these materials had been used by Garnett in his translation, but the majority of them were of later date.

Nothing is said in the introduction respecting the aim of the translation; but it is evident from the Notes that the purpose was twofold—to present the latest interpretation of the text, and to afford a literary version of the poem.

But the translator does not depend slavishly upon his text. He frequently uses emendations suggested by the scholars mentioned above, especially those of Professor 93 Sophus Bugge in Studien über das Beowulfsepos 7 ; see lines , , , , , The Introduction presents a new theory of the origin of the poem.

The notes are especially interesting because of the large body of quotations cited for literary comparison and for the light they throw on Old Germanic and medieval customs.

As a whole, the translation may fairly be called faithful. The emendations from which Professor Earle sometimes 94 renders are always carefully chosen, and the discussions of obscure lines in the poem are of real scholarly interest.

But this is not always true of the simpler passages of the poem. Thus, at line , Earle reads for. Now this is nothing more than an attempt on the part of the translator to wring from the Old English lines some scrap of proof for the peculiar theory that he holds of the origin of the poem.

Similarly, he often reads into a single word more than it can possibly bear. At line he translates—. The archaic style used by Professor Earle cannot be regarded as highly felicitous, since it mixes the diction of various ages.

The reason for these anomalies is evident—the translator wishes to imitate the remoteness of the original style. The style is certainly remote—at times almost as remote from the language of to-day as is the style of Beowulf itself.

XIV, Beiträge , XI, 1; Studien über das Beowulfsepos. Beiträge , XI, 1 ff. See the glossaries of Grein and Wyatt.

Boston: D. Heath and Co. The footnotes which contain the conjectural readings are interesting, and in one or two cases valuable additions to the suggested emendations cf.

Unferth, a thane of Hrothgar, is jealous of Beowulf, and undertakes to twit him. Breca outdid you entirely. Much more will Grendel outdo you, if you vie with him in prowess.

The translation is faithful, but not literal. The chief difference, for example, between this and the translation by Garnett is that Hall makes an attempt to preserve the poetic value of the Old English words.

He is never satisfied with the dictionary equivalent of an Old English expression. This method often leads the translator some distance, perhaps too great a distance, from the Old English.

The following may serve as examples of the heightened color that Hall gives to the Old English forms:—. Perhaps these paraphrastic renderings are what Dr.

As for the archaism, that is well enough for those who like it. It is never so strange as that of Earle, or the marvelous diction of William Morris.

But it is not, therefore, 99 dignified or clear. How much dignity and clarity a translator has a right to introduce into his rendering is a matter of opinion.

Hall was quite conscious of what he was doing, and doubtless regarded his diction as well suited to convey the original Beowulf spirit.

The chief criticism of the verse is that it is often not verse at all. Many passages are indistinguishable from prose. There might be an excuse for some of this freedom in blank verse, but in measures imitative of the Old English it is utterly out of place.

There is always a pause at the end of a line in Old English; run-on lines are uncommon. Aeltestes deutsches Heldengedicht.

Aus dem Angelsächsischen übertragen von P. Verlag von Herm. Liebich ? In Minerva , P. The translator desired to present a rendering of the poem that should attract the general reader.

He regards the Beowulf as of great importance in inspiring patriotism—he always calls the poem German—and even offers a comparison of Beowulf with Emperor William I.

With the scholarship of his subject the author hardly seems concerned. In addition to the translation, the volume contains articles on the history of the text, origin, the Germanic hero-tales, the episodes, the esthetic value of the poem.

These are decidedly subordinate in interest to the translation. The translation is in the so-called Nibelungen measures.

Archaisms and unnatural compounds are avoided. The Finnsburg fragment is inserted in the text at line , p. The episode is furnished with a beginning and ending original with Hoffmann.

It is a sufficient condemnation of the volume to quote the words of the Vorwort:—. It is not surprising that Hoffmann is unacquainted with the translations of Holder and Möller, as these works have never been made; but that a German translator should ignore the version of Grein is a revelation indeed.

Even though a translator may not care to embody in his work any new interpretations, it is nevertheless his duty to base his translation on the best text that he can find.

But apparently Hoffmann had never heard of the Heyne editions of the text, nor of the Grein-Wülker Bibliothek.

He evidently considered it a sufficient recommendation of his work to associate with it the name of Grein, not troubling himself to discover what advance had been made upon the work of that scholar.

Petty inaccuracies due to the nature of the translation also appear. An example of this is seen on page 3, at the opening of the first canto—.

The translation resembles the work of Lumsden 5 and Wackerbarth 6 in affording a version of the tale easily readable. And the same criticism may be passed on the work of Hoffmann that was passed on the two Englishmen.

The Nibelungenlied is a poem of the late twelfth century. The Beowulf at latest belongs to the eighth. It may find an audience where another and more faithful rendering would fail; but it will never win the esteem of scholars.

In his introduction Hoffmann calls attention to the lack of variety in blank verse, but surely it does not have the monotony inherent in a recurring rime and strophe.

Again, rime and strophe force upon the author the use of words and phrases needed to pad out the verse or stanza.

Attention must also be called to the fact that the original seldom affords a natural pause at the exact point demanded by the use of a strophic form.

One effect of the forced pause is that there is confusion in the use of kennings, which often have to do duty as subject in one stanza and as object in another stanza.

Wyatt, and printed by said William Morris at the Kelmscott Press, Uppermall, Hammersmith, in the county of Middlesex, and finished on the tenth day of January, Large 4 o , pp.

In the second edition a title-page is added. The running commentary, printed in rubric on the margin of the first edition, is omitted.

The plan of joining with his own the name of his principal teacher was one which Morris had used before when translating from a foreign tongue.

Wyatt had any hand in forming the final draft of the translation. In defending it, Morris took all the responsibility for the book upon himself, and he always spoke of it as his own work.

In writing to a German student toward the end of his life Morris spoke of the translation as his own without mentioning Mr.

Wyatt 1. Nor has Mr. Wyatt shown a disposition to claim a share in the work. In the preface to his edition of the text of Beowulf Cambridge, , he says:—.

Finally, it may be added that the specimens of Mr. None despised the merely literal rendering of an epic poem more than William Morris.

He believed it possible, e. The archaism of the English would represent the archaism of the Greek. This method he used in rendering Vergil and Homer.

But when he approached the translation of Beowulf , he was confronted by a new problem. It was evident that fifteenth-century English was ill-adapted to convey any just notion of eighth-century English.

Beowulf required a diction older than that of Sir Thomas Malory or Chaucer. Hence it became necessary to discard the theory altogether, or else to produce another style which should in some true sense be imitative of Beowulf.

This latter Morris tried to accomplish by increasing the archaism of his style by every means in his power.

This feature is discussed in the following section. The translation of Beowulf is written in extremely archaic language.

An imitative measure of four principal stresses is used. Wherever possible, the Old English syntax has been preserved see line ; the word-order of the original is retained.

The archaic language is wrought of several different kinds of words. Romance words are excluded whenever possible. It is therefore of importance to the student of the Beowulf.

As a literary rendering the translation is disappointing. In the first place, it must be frankly avowed that the diction is frequently so strange that it seems to modern readers well-nigh ridiculous.

There are certain sentences which cannot but evoke a smile. Secondly, the translation is unreadable. There is an avalanche of archaisms.

One example of the extreme obscurity may be given:—. Finally, the version does not translate. The verse is not nearly so rough as the original; many of the characteristic substitutions are avoided.

The feminine ending is frequently used. The verse is, therefore, not strictly imitative in that it retains the Old English system of versification, but rather in that it attempts to suggest the Old English movement by the use of four principal stresses and a varying number of unstressed syllables.

Gent, A. Siffer, Large 8 o , pp. With this in view he adds to his translation copious notes and an exhaustive comment.

Explanatory and critical comment is given in the footnotes, and textual criticism in the Notes at the end of the volume.

He adds that this was no easy task, as Dutch does not afford the same variety of simile as the Old English. A page is then given to the discussion of the nature of his verse.

He has often preferred the simple alliteration aa, bb to the Old English system 2. Gij maat de zeebahn , zwaaiend met de handen,.

The translation seems to aim chiefly at accuracy, which accounts for the rather large number of notes containing readings suggested by various commentators.

The translator uses freely compounds and metaphors similar to those in the original text. This seems occasionally to militate against the clearness of the work.

At this point Simons speaks as if ab, ab, were the common form of alliteration in Old English, whereas it is rather uncommon.

Altenglische Dichtungen Beowulf, Elene, u. Leipzig, , O. Fragmentary passages are not restored. It would be manifestly unfair to criticize this translation for its want of grace and melody, because it is avowedly a literal rendering, and a literal rendering makes no attempt to attain these qualities.

But there are certain things which are indispensable in a good literal translation. It is imperative that such a translation should be based on the best text of the original poem.

What has Steineck done? It seems almost incredible that a German, living in the midst of scholars who have done more than any other people to interpret the Beowulf , should ignore the fruits of their efforts.

It is unnecessary to enumerate the faults of this translation due to dependence upon an antiquated edition of the text.

Suffice it to say that when the edition of was printed the text had not yet been properly transcribed from the MS.

But there are evidences of an inaccuracy of a different kind that betray a carelessness utterly reprehensible. The author is apparently unable to transliterate properly the Old English names.

As compounds these may not be offensive to a German; but the trouble with them is that they do not translate the Old English ideas.

Finally, it may be asked why a translation that appeals only as a literal rendering should not be strictly literal, noting its every variation from the original, italicizing supplied words, holding to the original word-order.

In point of accuracy the book is not worthy to stand with good translations thirty years old. Clark Hall, M.

With twelve illustrations 1. London: Swan Sonnenschein and Company, Lim. Hitherto Dr. Hall had been chiefly known to the learned world for his excellent Anglo-Saxon Dictionary for Students.

Moreover, this translation was the first to embody the results of various studies on the poem during the past decade.

Unlike the preceding works on Beowulf , it may be said that the introductory and illustrative matter in this book is of quite as much importance as the translation.

The author says of his book:—. Statements similar to these have been put forth by other translators of the poem, but the material of their volume has not always borne them out.

The translation is founded on the text of A. Wyatt, Cambridge, In his translation Dr. Frequent reference is also made to the work of Cosijn, Aanteekeningen op den Beowulf The translation is a literal prose version.

It is constantly interrupted by bits of running comment, designed to overcome the inherent obscurity of the poem, or to afford an elaborate digest of the story if read without the translation p.

The extract is typical of all that is best in the translation. At times the translation, as here, verges on a literary rendering. But in this respect the first part of the poem is vastly superior to the later parts, though all three are marred by extreme literalness.

Hall did not always escape the strange diction that has so often before disfigured the translations of Beowulf :—.

It is also rather surprising to learn from Dr. It should be added that the explanatory comment which constantly interrupts the translation, often six or eight times in a section, is annoying, both because it distracts the attention and because it is often presented in a style wholly inappropriate to the context.

But this absence of ease and dignity does not hinder Dr. That it conveys an adequate notion of the style of Beowulf , however, it is impossible to affirm.

Chiefly of Anglo-Saxon antiquities. See my forthcoming review of the book in the Journal of Germanic Philology. New York: Newson and Co.

Ein beitrag zur geschichte alter deutscher geisteszustände. Von H. Halle, bei Eduard Anton, The titles of the chapters are: I.

Historische Anlehnung; II. Mythischer Inhalt; III. Die geographischen Angaben; IV. Genealogische Verhältnisse der in dem Liede vorkommenden Helden; V.

In this fifth chapter are found the extracts from Beowulf. It will be seen that the chapter is somewhat subordinate to the others, its chief purpose being to furnish a kind of digest of the poem, to be used principally as a work of reference.

Unfortunately his omissions are often the most poetical lines of the Beowulf. Further examples may be found in the extract given below.

As an analysis this is good enough; as a translation of the passage it is of course utterly inadequate—it omits the very best lines in the original.

The book served, however, as a running digest of the story, and as such gave an excellent idea of the contents of the poem.

Has theses Parisiensi Litterarum Facultati proponebat S. Sandras in Lycaeo Claromontensi Professor. Parisiis, Apud A.

Durand, Bibliopolam, Beowulf described Cap. The only significance of this book is that it contained the first information about Beowulf given to the French public.

About ten lines are literally translated in Cap. Popular Romances of the Middle Ages. By George W. Cox, M. Jones , pp. Sometimes these omissions seem unnecessary.

It is certainly a mistake to sacrifice the swimming-match, lively in its narrative, dramatic in setting. On the other hand, the author makes an attempt to preserve as much as possible of the original style.

So anxious is he to save every picturesque word of the original, that he sometimes transfers expressions from the passages which he is obliged to drop and inserts them in other parts of the story.

The object of a paraphrase is to present all the essential matter of the original, in a style materially simpler than, though not unrelated to, the original.

The matter of Mr. It is full of minor errors. The style of the work is much better. It is throughout strong and clear, not over-sentimental.

It is, perhaps, too intimate; it savors slightly of the Märchen. This absence of vigor and remoteness may be due to the nature of the volume of which this paraphrase is only a part.

Swimming-match omitted. Jahresbericht über die Realschule zu Forbach Lothringen für das Schuljahr bis , mit welchem zu der öffentlichen Prüfung am Freitag den August ergebenst einladet der Director A.

Voran geht eine Abhandlung des ordentlichen Lehrers G. Druck von Gebrüder Hofer. The translation is very free. Lines that are obscure in the original are not allowed to be obscure in the translation, even if they have to have a meaning read into them.

There is at times a tendency to paraphrase, or even to introduce an original sentence into the poem.

An example of this may be seen at the close of the first canto:—. Und dunkel oft die Wege des Geschickes 2.

Words are occasionally omitted. There are no lines in the original which correspond to the last line and a half of the extract.

Of course by adopting this method of translation the writer attains his purpose. His poem is readable, but readable at the expense of accuracy.

As a paraphrase, the version is commendable; but it is hardly of importance in any other way. According to the Old English text, The Old English reads:—.

Gudrun, Beowulf, and Roland, with other mediaeval tales by John Gibb, with twenty illustrations. London: T.

Fisher Unwin, Gibb seems to care nothing for the beauties of the style. An illustration of the same thing may be seen by noting the omission of phrases from the swimming-match.

In comparison with the work of Mr. Jones 2 , it may be said that Mr. He supplies fewer explanatory words and sentences. But, on the other hand, Mr.

Thus it sins against one of the laws of paraphrase: that the writer, in relieving himself of the exacting duties of translator, must present the story in a more literary and more truly adequate medium.

At page of the concluding chapter, the author speaks of the history and character of the poem. It will be found on reference to this section that the author is a follower of the views set forth in the edition of Mr.

Thomas Arnold 3. It is probable that Mr. Gibb was indebted to this book for much of his paraphrase, but the free character of the version prevents any decision on this point.

Woodcuts; two of them are identical with the ones given in the Wägner-MacDowall paraphrase: see infra, p. Epics and Romances of the Middle Ages.

Adapted from the Work of Dr. Wägner by M. MacDowall, and edited by W. Philadelphia: J. Wägner Leipzig, From the nature of the changes made in the story, it is evident that an appeal is made to younger readers.

This is borne out by the statement on p. The story does not pretend to do more than follow the most general outlines of the original.

The most important changes are in the first division of the poem, where it would seem that no changes whatever were needed.

The principal additions are the following:—. Breca is represented as winning the match. It will be seen, for example, that the tone of the entire passage is altered.

The bit of repartee in the last sentence is wholly foreign to the Beowulf manner, which is outright and downright—the very opposite of subtilty.

Wait till to-night, and thou shalt see which of us is the stronger. The story is, if possible, more garbled than the style. The mission of the minstrel and the mangled account of the swimming-match have no essential or artistic relation to the context.

They are merely inserted to add to the action of the piece. The popularity of the book is attested by the number of editions through which it has passed.

The volume contains also paraphrases of the legends about Arthur, Charlemagne, and Tannhäuser, as well as the story of the Nibelungs.

These must account for its enduring success; but it is unfortunate that this, the poorest of the Beowulf paraphrases, should thus have found an audience which it did not deserve and could never have commanded for itself.

Woodcuts; inaccurate. A prize offered by King Hygelak for the victor in the match. Germanische Götter- und Heldensagen.

Freiin von Droste-Hülshoff. Kreuznach, Verlag von R. Voigtländer, With him she published in at Leipzig a volume of poems Gedichte.

For certain of her verses in this volume she received high praise. She has since continued creative work. She resides at Breslau, where Felix Dahn is professor in the University.

Obscure words, phrases, and lines are omitted; and explanatory words are inserted from time to time.

Evidence of the dependence upon Simrock may be found at every step. The forms of the proper names invented by Simrock are repeated here e.

His renderings of the unique words in the poem sometimes in a slightly simplified form are used in the paraphrase.

Often the original word used by Simrock is added in parentheses cf. Further evidence may be found by comparing the extracts given in this work.

In many places the work is practically a translation, so closely has the original been followed. The style is agreeable and simple; but most of what is beautiful in the diction belongs to Simrock rather than to Frau Dahn.

The omissions are the most sensible that I have found in a paraphrase. Nothing of first importance has been lost. By Stopford A. English Literature from the Beginning to the Norman Conquest.

This volume is included here because of the great influence it has had in forming popular notions regarding the Beowulf.

The eminence of Mr. Brooke as a critic and as a poet has given him the attention of an audience hardly commanded by any other writer included in this paper.

Again, the number of lines actually translated by Mr. Brooke is equal to that in many of the volumes described in this section. The account in the second volume is much shorter than that in the first; only twelve pages are given to the story of Beowulf, while the first volume gives forty-three.

The later book omits all discussion of the episodes, and, although parts of the older volume are retained, the matter is, in general, re-written.

In his Preface p. The author adopts an archaic diction. The word-order of the Old English is followed whenever possible. While the extracts cannot always be praised for their accuracy, they are, perhaps, sufficiently faithful for a popular work.

When the author undertakes to emend the text for himself, or offers an original interpretation, his work is not always trustworthy.

Emendations in his Beowulf selections, however, are rare. The style of the extracts seems needlessly obscure. This is due in part to following too closely the original word-order see lines 4 and 5 of the extract , and in part to the free use of archaic language.

The verse, which has been fully discussed above, is, perhaps, the most satisfactory feature of Mr. Of course it is not strictly imitative, as he himself explains, but it gives a fairly good impression of the movement of the Old English verse.

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We may agree with the translator regarding the difficulty of rendering compound and kenning into French, and yet the very absence of an attempt to do this jeopardizes the value of the translation more than the omission of many episodes, for it brings it dangerously near to paraphrase.

A part of the story has been thrown away with the adjectives. The force and beauty of the passage are gone.

But there is another danger in this paraphrastic method. In omitting words and phrases, the translator will often misinterpret his original.

In attempting to simplify the Old English, he departs from the original 79 sense. Instances of this may be brought forward from the Finn episode:.

Botkine makes of this—. The rendering is not without its amusing features, chiefly illustrations of the inability of the French language to accommodate itself to typically Germanic expressions.

Save Michel. Paris, Leroux, Omits middan-geardes. Omits under heofonum. Omits lines — a. Omits wintrys wylum.

Lumsden 1. London: C. Lumsden, late Royal Artillery. Second edition, revised and corrected.

London: Kegan Paul, Trench and Co. In the first edition of the translation a number of passages were omitted. Some of these omissions were owing to corrupt text, some to extreme obscurity of the original, and some merely to the fact that the original was deemed uninteresting.

The principal omissions were: 83—86; —; —; —; —; —; ; —; — These passages were inserted in the second edition. Thus his work resembles that of Wackerbarth 2 ; and, like Wackerbarth, he couched his translation in ballad measures.

Lumsden does not vary his measure, but preserves the iambic heptameter throughout. His lines rime in couplets. The Introduction and Notes contain popular expositions of the work of preceding scholars.

Garnett has shown 5 that Lumsden ignored the text of Grein and the editions of Heyne. These defects were remedied to some extent in the second edition.

Lumsden himself never emends the text. The extract illustrates the paraphrastic nature of parts of the translation.

Lumsden frequently seems to feel it necessary to read a meaning into the obscure lines and 82 passages that do not easily lend themselves to translation; cf.

At line Lumsden translates:—. The passage is certainly obscure, and the readings are not all undoubted, but the words can never be tortured into meaning what Lumsden tries to make them mean.

But it would be manifestly unfair to judge a translation addressed to the general reader merely by scholarly tests.

The work must make its appeal as a literary rendering. The propriety of adopting a ballad measure may be questioned.

Probably no measure could be found more unlike the Old English lines. Moreover, by reason of its long association with purely popular poetry, it constantly suggests the commonplace and the trivial.

But above all, it is reminiscent of a medievalism wholly different from that of Beowulf. The saving grace of the ballad measure is its readableness.

It is rather effective in passages not too dignified, calling for action. But in passages of elevation the line is found wanting:—. See American Journal of Philology , ii.

From the second edition. Garnett, M. In the second edition the translation was collated with the Grein-Wülker text, and wherever necessary, with the Zupitza Autotypes.

Additions were made to the bibliography:—. As has been pointed out above in the sections on Arnold 1 and Lumsden 2 , no satisfactory literal translation of Beowulf existed in English.

Furthermore, an American translation had never appeared. It was with a view to presenting the latest German interpretations of the poem 84 that Garnett prepared his literal version of the poem.

The original draft of the translation was made at St. In the second edition notes are added showing the variants from the Grein-Wülker text of Of this feature of his work Professor Garnett says:—.

The swimming-match with Breca. Joy in Heorot. The translation, in its revised form, is throughout a faithful version of the original text.

The rendering may be word for word, but it will not be idea for idea. Examples of this inadequacy may be given from the printed extract.

Had the poet simply meant to express the notion of grief , he would have used sorh , cearu , or some other common word. Examples of this sort can be brought forward from any part of the poem.

At line Garnett translates—. It would seem from the way in which the measure is used that it was a kind of second thought, incident upon the use of a line-for-line translation.

It is hard to read the lines as 87 anything but prose, and, if they appeared in any other form upon the page, it is to be questioned whether any one would have guessed that they were intended to be imitative.

The book received long and respectful reviews from the Germans. Professor Child and Henry Sweet expressed their approbation.

The book has passed through four editions. This cordial welcome has been due in large measure to the increasing attention given the poem in American colleges and secondary schools.

Being strictly literal, the book has been of value as a means of interpreting the poem. Beovulf, poema epico anglosassone del vii secolo, tradotto e illustrato dal Dott.

Giusto Grion, Socio Ordinario. Tomo XXII. Lucca: Tipografia Giusti, Full discussions of 1 Mito; 2 Storia; 3 Letteratura.

The latter is a fairly complete bibliography of what had been done on Beowulf up to this time.

The translator makes use of all the texts and commentaries that had appeared up to his time, and even goes so far as to emend the text for himself cf.

The Notes are rather full. They are sometimes merely explanatory; sometimes there are discussions of the MS. The translation is literal; the medium an imitative measure of four principal stresses, varied occasionally by the expanded line.

The diction is simple. In purpose and method this version may be compared with that of Kemble 1 and of Schaldemose 2.

In each case the translator was introducing the poem to a foreign public, and it was therefore well that the translation should be literal in order that it might assist in the interpretation of the original.

There has been no further work done on the poem in Italy 3. While the verse is not strictly imitative in the sense that it preserves exactly the Old English system of versification, it aims to maintain the general movement of the original lines.

The four stresses are kept, save where a fifth is used to avoid monotony. Of a work by G. Beowulf, en fornengelsk hjeltedikt, öfversatt af Rudolf Wickberg.

Westervik, C. The translator begins his introduction with a discussion of the importance of Beowulf as a historical document. For this reason he is especially interested in the episodes:—.

The author constructs his own text. He explains p. At the Clarendon Press, February. Some of these materials had been used by Garnett in his translation, but the majority of them were of later date.

Nothing is said in the introduction respecting the aim of the translation; but it is evident from the Notes that the purpose was twofold—to present the latest interpretation of the text, and to afford a literary version of the poem.

But the translator does not depend slavishly upon his text. He frequently uses emendations suggested by the scholars mentioned above, especially those of Professor 93 Sophus Bugge in Studien über das Beowulfsepos 7 ; see lines , , , , , The Introduction presents a new theory of the origin of the poem.

The notes are especially interesting because of the large body of quotations cited for literary comparison and for the light they throw on Old Germanic and medieval customs.

As a whole, the translation may fairly be called faithful. The emendations from which Professor Earle sometimes 94 renders are always carefully chosen, and the discussions of obscure lines in the poem are of real scholarly interest.

But this is not always true of the simpler passages of the poem. Thus, at line , Earle reads for.

Now this is nothing more than an attempt on the part of the translator to wring from the Old English lines some scrap of proof for the peculiar theory that he holds of the origin of the poem.

Similarly, he often reads into a single word more than it can possibly bear. At line he translates—. The archaic style used by Professor Earle cannot be regarded as highly felicitous, since it mixes the diction of various ages.

The reason for these anomalies is evident—the translator wishes to imitate the remoteness of the original style.

The style is certainly remote—at times almost as remote from the language of to-day as is the style of Beowulf itself.

XIV, Beiträge , XI, 1; Studien über das Beowulfsepos. Beiträge , XI, 1 ff. See the glossaries of Grein and Wyatt.

Boston: D. Heath and Co. The footnotes which contain the conjectural readings are interesting, and in one or two cases valuable additions to the suggested emendations cf.

Unferth, a thane of Hrothgar, is jealous of Beowulf, and undertakes to twit him. Breca outdid you entirely. Much more will Grendel outdo you, if you vie with him in prowess.

The translation is faithful, but not literal. The chief difference, for example, between this and the translation by Garnett is that Hall makes an attempt to preserve the poetic value of the Old English words.

He is never satisfied with the dictionary equivalent of an Old English expression. This method often leads the translator some distance, perhaps too great a distance, from the Old English.

The following may serve as examples of the heightened color that Hall gives to the Old English forms:—. Perhaps these paraphrastic renderings are what Dr.

As for the archaism, that is well enough for those who like it. It is never so strange as that of Earle, or the marvelous diction of William Morris.

But it is not, therefore, 99 dignified or clear. How much dignity and clarity a translator has a right to introduce into his rendering is a matter of opinion.

Hall was quite conscious of what he was doing, and doubtless regarded his diction as well suited to convey the original Beowulf spirit. The chief criticism of the verse is that it is often not verse at all.

Many passages are indistinguishable from prose. There might be an excuse for some of this freedom in blank verse, but in measures imitative of the Old English it is utterly out of place.

There is always a pause at the end of a line in Old English; run-on lines are uncommon. Aeltestes deutsches Heldengedicht. Aus dem Angelsächsischen übertragen von P.

Verlag von Herm. Liebich ? In Minerva , P. The translator desired to present a rendering of the poem that should attract the general reader.

He regards the Beowulf as of great importance in inspiring patriotism—he always calls the poem German—and even offers a comparison of Beowulf with Emperor William I.

With the scholarship of his subject the author hardly seems concerned. In addition to the translation, the volume contains articles on the history of the text, origin, the Germanic hero-tales, the episodes, the esthetic value of the poem.

These are decidedly subordinate in interest to the translation. The translation is in the so-called Nibelungen measures.

Archaisms and unnatural compounds are avoided. The Finnsburg fragment is inserted in the text at line , p. The episode is furnished with a beginning and ending original with Hoffmann.

It is a sufficient condemnation of the volume to quote the words of the Vorwort:—. It is not surprising that Hoffmann is unacquainted with the translations of Holder and Möller, as these works have never been made; but that a German translator should ignore the version of Grein is a revelation indeed.

Even though a translator may not care to embody in his work any new interpretations, it is nevertheless his duty to base his translation on the best text that he can find.

But apparently Hoffmann had never heard of the Heyne editions of the text, nor of the Grein-Wülker Bibliothek. He evidently considered it a sufficient recommendation of his work to associate with it the name of Grein, not troubling himself to discover what advance had been made upon the work of that scholar.

Petty inaccuracies due to the nature of the translation also appear. An example of this is seen on page 3, at the opening of the first canto—.

The translation resembles the work of Lumsden 5 and Wackerbarth 6 in affording a version of the tale easily readable.

And the same criticism may be passed on the work of Hoffmann that was passed on the two Englishmen. The Nibelungenlied is a poem of the late twelfth century.

The Beowulf at latest belongs to the eighth. It may find an audience where another and more faithful rendering would fail; but it will never win the esteem of scholars.

In his introduction Hoffmann calls attention to the lack of variety in blank verse, but surely it does not have the monotony inherent in a recurring rime and strophe.

Again, rime and strophe force upon the author the use of words and phrases needed to pad out the verse or stanza. Attention must also be called to the fact that the original seldom affords a natural pause at the exact point demanded by the use of a strophic form.

One effect of the forced pause is that there is confusion in the use of kennings, which often have to do duty as subject in one stanza and as object in another stanza.

Wyatt, and printed by said William Morris at the Kelmscott Press, Uppermall, Hammersmith, in the county of Middlesex, and finished on the tenth day of January, Large 4 o , pp.

In the second edition a title-page is added. The running commentary, printed in rubric on the margin of the first edition, is omitted.

The plan of joining with his own the name of his principal teacher was one which Morris had used before when translating from a foreign tongue.

Wyatt had any hand in forming the final draft of the translation. In defending it, Morris took all the responsibility for the book upon himself, and he always spoke of it as his own work.

In writing to a German student toward the end of his life Morris spoke of the translation as his own without mentioning Mr.

Wyatt 1. Nor has Mr. Wyatt shown a disposition to claim a share in the work. In the preface to his edition of the text of Beowulf Cambridge, , he says:—.

Finally, it may be added that the specimens of Mr. None despised the merely literal rendering of an epic poem more than William Morris.

He believed it possible, e. The archaism of the English would represent the archaism of the Greek. This method he used in rendering Vergil and Homer.

But when he approached the translation of Beowulf , he was confronted by a new problem. It was evident that fifteenth-century English was ill-adapted to convey any just notion of eighth-century English.

Beowulf required a diction older than that of Sir Thomas Malory or Chaucer. Hence it became necessary to discard the theory altogether, or else to produce another style which should in some true sense be imitative of Beowulf.

This latter Morris tried to accomplish by increasing the archaism of his style by every means in his power.

This feature is discussed in the following section. The translation of Beowulf is written in extremely archaic language. An imitative measure of four principal stresses is used.

Wherever possible, the Old English syntax has been preserved see line ; the word-order of the original is retained. The archaic language is wrought of several different kinds of words.

Romance words are excluded whenever possible. It is therefore of importance to the student of the Beowulf. As a literary rendering the translation is disappointing.

In the first place, it must be frankly avowed that the diction is frequently so strange that it seems to modern readers well-nigh ridiculous.

There are certain sentences which cannot but evoke a smile. Secondly, the translation is unreadable.

There is an avalanche of archaisms. One example of the extreme obscurity may be given:—. Finally, the version does not translate.

The verse is not nearly so rough as the original; many of the characteristic substitutions are avoided. The feminine ending is frequently used.

The verse is, therefore, not strictly imitative in that it retains the Old English system of versification, but rather in that it attempts to suggest the Old English movement by the use of four principal stresses and a varying number of unstressed syllables.

Gent, A. Siffer, Large 8 o , pp. With this in view he adds to his translation copious notes and an exhaustive comment. Explanatory and critical comment is given in the footnotes, and textual criticism in the Notes at the end of the volume.

He adds that this was no easy task, as Dutch does not afford the same variety of simile as the Old English.

A page is then given to the discussion of the nature of his verse. He has often preferred the simple alliteration aa, bb to the Old English system 2.

Gij maat de zeebahn , zwaaiend met de handen,. The translation seems to aim chiefly at accuracy, which accounts for the rather large number of notes containing readings suggested by various commentators.

The translator uses freely compounds and metaphors similar to those in the original text. This seems occasionally to militate against the clearness of the work.

At this point Simons speaks as if ab, ab, were the common form of alliteration in Old English, whereas it is rather uncommon. Altenglische Dichtungen Beowulf, Elene, u.

Leipzig, , O. Fragmentary passages are not restored. It would be manifestly unfair to criticize this translation for its want of grace and melody, because it is avowedly a literal rendering, and a literal rendering makes no attempt to attain these qualities.

But there are certain things which are indispensable in a good literal translation. It is imperative that such a translation should be based on the best text of the original poem.

What has Steineck done? It seems almost incredible that a German, living in the midst of scholars who have done more than any other people to interpret the Beowulf , should ignore the fruits of their efforts.

It is unnecessary to enumerate the faults of this translation due to dependence upon an antiquated edition of the text.

Suffice it to say that when the edition of was printed the text had not yet been properly transcribed from the MS. But there are evidences of an inaccuracy of a different kind that betray a carelessness utterly reprehensible.

The author is apparently unable to transliterate properly the Old English names. As compounds these may not be offensive to a German; but the trouble with them is that they do not translate the Old English ideas.

Finally, it may be asked why a translation that appeals only as a literal rendering should not be strictly literal, noting its every variation from the original, italicizing supplied words, holding to the original word-order.

In point of accuracy the book is not worthy to stand with good translations thirty years old. Clark Hall, M. With twelve illustrations 1.

London: Swan Sonnenschein and Company, Lim. Hitherto Dr. Hall had been chiefly known to the learned world for his excellent Anglo-Saxon Dictionary for Students.

Moreover, this translation was the first to embody the results of various studies on the poem during the past decade. Unlike the preceding works on Beowulf , it may be said that the introductory and illustrative matter in this book is of quite as much importance as the translation.

The author says of his book:—. Statements similar to these have been put forth by other translators of the poem, but the material of their volume has not always borne them out.

The translation is founded on the text of A. Wyatt, Cambridge, In his translation Dr. Frequent reference is also made to the work of Cosijn, Aanteekeningen op den Beowulf The translation is a literal prose version.

It is constantly interrupted by bits of running comment, designed to overcome the inherent obscurity of the poem, or to afford an elaborate digest of the story if read without the translation p.

The extract is typical of all that is best in the translation. At times the translation, as here, verges on a literary rendering.

But in this respect the first part of the poem is vastly superior to the later parts, though all three are marred by extreme literalness.

Hall did not always escape the strange diction that has so often before disfigured the translations of Beowulf :—.

It is also rather surprising to learn from Dr. It should be added that the explanatory comment which constantly interrupts the translation, often six or eight times in a section, is annoying, both because it distracts the attention and because it is often presented in a style wholly inappropriate to the context.

But this absence of ease and dignity does not hinder Dr. That it conveys an adequate notion of the style of Beowulf , however, it is impossible to affirm.

Chiefly of Anglo-Saxon antiquities. See my forthcoming review of the book in the Journal of Germanic Philology. New York: Newson and Co.

Ein beitrag zur geschichte alter deutscher geisteszustände. Von H. Halle, bei Eduard Anton, The titles of the chapters are: I.

Historische Anlehnung; II. Mythischer Inhalt; III. Die geographischen Angaben; IV. Genealogische Verhältnisse der in dem Liede vorkommenden Helden; V.

In this fifth chapter are found the extracts from Beowulf. It will be seen that the chapter is somewhat subordinate to the others, its chief purpose being to furnish a kind of digest of the poem, to be used principally as a work of reference.

Unfortunately his omissions are often the most poetical lines of the Beowulf. Further examples may be found in the extract given below.

As an analysis this is good enough; as a translation of the passage it is of course utterly inadequate—it omits the very best lines in the original.

The book served, however, as a running digest of the story, and as such gave an excellent idea of the contents of the poem.

Has theses Parisiensi Litterarum Facultati proponebat S. Sandras in Lycaeo Claromontensi Professor. Parisiis, Apud A. Durand, Bibliopolam, Beowulf described Cap.

The only significance of this book is that it contained the first information about Beowulf given to the French public.

About ten lines are literally translated in Cap. Popular Romances of the Middle Ages. By George W.

Cox, M. Jones , pp. Sometimes these omissions seem unnecessary. It is certainly a mistake to sacrifice the swimming-match, lively in its narrative, dramatic in setting.

On the other hand, the author makes an attempt to preserve as much as possible of the original style.

So anxious is he to save every picturesque word of the original, that he sometimes transfers expressions from the passages which he is obliged to drop and inserts them in other parts of the story.

The object of a paraphrase is to present all the essential matter of the original, in a style materially simpler than, though not unrelated to, the original.

The matter of Mr. It is full of minor errors. The style of the work is much better. It is throughout strong and clear, not over-sentimental.

It is, perhaps, too intimate; it savors slightly of the Märchen. This absence of vigor and remoteness may be due to the nature of the volume of which this paraphrase is only a part.

Swimming-match omitted. Jahresbericht über die Realschule zu Forbach Lothringen für das Schuljahr bis , mit welchem zu der öffentlichen Prüfung am Freitag den August ergebenst einladet der Director A.

Voran geht eine Abhandlung des ordentlichen Lehrers G. Druck von Gebrüder Hofer. The translation is very free.

Lines that are obscure in the original are not allowed to be obscure in the translation, even if they have to have a meaning read into them.

There is at times a tendency to paraphrase, or even to introduce an original sentence into the poem. An example of this may be seen at the close of the first canto:—.

Und dunkel oft die Wege des Geschickes 2. Words are occasionally omitted. There are no lines in the original which correspond to the last line and a half of the extract.

Of course by adopting this method of translation the writer attains his purpose. His poem is readable, but readable at the expense of accuracy.

As a paraphrase, the version is commendable; but it is hardly of importance in any other way. According to the Old English text, The Old English reads:—.

Gudrun, Beowulf, and Roland, with other mediaeval tales by John Gibb, with twenty illustrations. London: T.

Fisher Unwin, Gibb seems to care nothing for the beauties of the style. An illustration of the same thing may be seen by noting the omission of phrases from the swimming-match.

In comparison with the work of Mr. Jones 2 , it may be said that Mr. He supplies fewer explanatory words and sentences. But, on the other hand, Mr.

Thus it sins against one of the laws of paraphrase: that the writer, in relieving himself of the exacting duties of translator, must present the story in a more literary and more truly adequate medium.

At page of the concluding chapter, the author speaks of the history and character of the poem. It will be found on reference to this section that the author is a follower of the views set forth in the edition of Mr.

Thomas Arnold 3. It is probable that Mr. Gibb was indebted to this book for much of his paraphrase, but the free character of the version prevents any decision on this point.

Woodcuts; two of them are identical with the ones given in the Wägner-MacDowall paraphrase: see infra, p. Epics and Romances of the Middle Ages.

Adapted from the Work of Dr. Wägner by M. MacDowall, and edited by W. Philadelphia: J. Wägner Leipzig, From the nature of the changes made in the story, it is evident that an appeal is made to younger readers.

This is borne out by the statement on p. The story does not pretend to do more than follow the most general outlines of the original.

The most important changes are in the first division of the poem, where it would seem that no changes whatever were needed.

The principal additions are the following:—. Breca is represented as winning the match. It will be seen, for example, that the tone of the entire passage is altered.

The bit of repartee in the last sentence is wholly foreign to the Beowulf manner, which is outright and downright—the very opposite of subtilty.

Wait till to-night, and thou shalt see which of us is the stronger. The story is, if possible, more garbled than the style.

The mission of the minstrel and the mangled account of the swimming-match have no essential or artistic relation to the context.

They are merely inserted to add to the action of the piece. The popularity of the book is attested by the number of editions through which it has passed.

The volume contains also paraphrases of the legends about Arthur, Charlemagne, and Tannhäuser, as well as the story of the Nibelungs.

These must account for its enduring success; but it is unfortunate that this, the poorest of the Beowulf paraphrases, should thus have found an audience which it did not deserve and could never have commanded for itself.

Woodcuts; inaccurate. A prize offered by King Hygelak for the victor in the match. Germanische Götter- und Heldensagen.

Freiin von Droste-Hülshoff. Kreuznach, Verlag von R. Voigtländer, With him she published in at Leipzig a volume of poems Gedichte.

For certain of her verses in this volume she received high praise. She has since continued creative work. She resides at Breslau, where Felix Dahn is professor in the University.

Obscure words, phrases, and lines are omitted; and explanatory words are inserted from time to time. Evidence of the dependence upon Simrock may be found at every step.

The forms of the proper names invented by Simrock are repeated here e. His renderings of the unique words in the poem sometimes in a slightly simplified form are used in the paraphrase.

Often the original word used by Simrock is added in parentheses cf. Further evidence may be found by comparing the extracts given in this work.

In many places the work is practically a translation, so closely has the original been followed.

The style is agreeable and simple; but most of what is beautiful in the diction belongs to Simrock rather than to Frau Dahn.

The omissions are the most sensible that I have found in a paraphrase. Nothing of first importance has been lost. By Stopford A. English Literature from the Beginning to the Norman Conquest.

This volume is included here because of the great influence it has had in forming popular notions regarding the Beowulf.

The eminence of Mr. Brooke as a critic and as a poet has given him the attention of an audience hardly commanded by any other writer included in this paper.

Again, the number of lines actually translated by Mr. Brooke is equal to that in many of the volumes described in this section.

The account in the second volume is much shorter than that in the first; only twelve pages are given to the story of Beowulf, while the first volume gives forty-three.

The later book omits all discussion of the episodes, and, although parts of the older volume are retained, the matter is, in general, re-written.

In his Preface p. The author adopts an archaic diction. The word-order of the Old English is followed whenever possible. While the extracts cannot always be praised for their accuracy, they are, perhaps, sufficiently faithful for a popular work.

When the author undertakes to emend the text for himself, or offers an original interpretation, his work is not always trustworthy.

Emendations in his Beowulf selections, however, are rare. The style of the extracts seems needlessly obscure. This is due in part to following too closely the original word-order see lines 4 and 5 of the extract , and in part to the free use of archaic language.

The verse, which has been fully discussed above, is, perhaps, the most satisfactory feature of Mr.

Of course it is not strictly imitative, as he himself explains, but it gives a fairly good impression of the movement of the Old English verse.

The swimming-match is not available for illustration here. Tales of the Heroic Ages. Of late she has turned her attention to the mythology of the various European nations, and has written of Siegfried, Frithjof, and Roland.

Some notion of the extent of this borrowing may be had by examining the extract printed below and the criticism that follows.

This inference is borne out by frequent misapprehension of the original sense, due in large measure to the use of a single translation.

The list of proper names on p. Of course, an intimate knowledge of the Beowulf style and diction is not indispensable to the writer of a paraphrase, but the writer who has it will naturally be superior to the writer without it.

For illustration, Miss Thomson 2 never misinterprets a passage as does Miss Ragozin on page , where nearly every sentence is false to the Beowulf manner.

But these slight defects need not blind us to the service done by Miss Ragozin in making Beowulf accessible to school children. The style is, in general, strong and effective, not without some of the beauty and dignity of the Old English, but relieved of the more obscure and recondite features of that style.

Heroes of Chivalry and Romance. By the Rev. Church, M. London: Seeley and Company, With two illustrations in colours by George Morrow.

All obscure words especially kennings and lines are dropped. Many explanatory remarks are inserted to elucidate the story.

All speeches are greatly shortened. The episodes are omitted, with the exception of the Sigemund episode, one-half of which is translated into heroic couplets, and the Finn episode, which is referred to in a single stanza which paraphrases the story.

The Rev. Alfred John Church born is known chiefly for his popularizations of the classics. His best-known works are Stories from Homer and Stories from Virgil.

The extract is so much fuller than the other parts of the paraphrase that it hardly gives a fair notion of the nature of the work.

The author has appreciated the dramatic quality of the swimming episode and preserved it nearly entire. Other parts of the story are much less fortunate.

A little knowledge of Old English would have done the author no harm, and would have saved him from some errors. His most evident mistakes are in the forms of the proper names.

The diction is unfortunate. In point of accuracy this version is quite inferior to the work of Miss Thomson 3 ; and in point of style and atmosphere to that of Mr.

Jones 4 , Miss Ragozin 5 , or Miss Thomson. London: Horace Marshall and Son, This statement is more modest than need be.

It will be found that only two of the episodes are passed without mention—the Prolog and the Tale of Thrytho.

In each case the episodes are carefully woven into the story, and that without superfluous words. The words and sentences which are supplied are very carefully chosen, and most of them have a prototype somewhere in the poem.

There was no man, friend nor foe, who could dissuade you from that sorrowful journey; but ye swam in the surf, stretching out your arms over the waves, and stirring up the surge with your hands.

So did ye glide across the ocean, while the waves weltered in wintry storms, and for seven nights ye laboured in the tumult of the seas.

But in the end the victory was with Breca, for his might was the greater. Then on the morning of the eighth day the tide bore him to the shore of Norway, whence he visited his beloved home, the fair city of safety, where he ruled over many people, over towns and treasure.

Truly he did perform all his boast against thee. It were sufficient praise to point out that the author has contrived to retain practically all of the poem, without ever falsifying its spirit by introducing a superabundance of explanatory phrases 2.

She is always true to the story as Miss Ragozin 3 is not, for example, in the first section of her work ; she is equally true to the spirit of the poem as Mr.

Gibb 4 is not. The style is both vigorous and simple, not unworthy of the story it tells. Miss Thomson is better known as the biographer of Samuel Richardson.

London, London and New York, Brown, Anna R. Verse, ll. Gummere, F. Longfellow, Henry Wadsworth , in Poets and Poetry of Europe, lines 18—40; 53—83; —; —; — Morley, Henry , in English Writers, I, pp.

Robinson, W. Lines 87—98 verse , and 1—52 prose. Smith, C. Sprague , in the New Englander, IV, p. Carew Hazlitt London, Tolman, A.

Beowulf, Roman von Karl Manno pseud. Carl von Lemcke. In Deutsche Roman-Zeitung , Jahrg. Berlin, After speaking of his original intention of translating the Beowulf , which he later discarded, the author says:—.

An asterisk is placed before the titles of books which the present writer has not seen. July , Hunferth spoke The son of Ecglafe; Who had sat at the foot Of the lord of the Scyldingi Among the band of the battle mystery.

To go in the path of Beowulf Was to him a great pride; He was zealous That to him it should be granted That no other man 13 Was esteemed greater in the world Under the heavens than himself.

You try for deceitful glory In deep waters 6. Dear to his people, of the land of the Brondingi; the Lord of fair cities, where he had people, barks, and bracelets, Ealwith, the son of Beandane, the faithful companion menaced.

Every where the rush of grim battle will be made. If thou darest the grendles, the time of a long night will be near to thee.

There you for riches, and for deceitful glory, explore its bays in the deep waters, till you sleep with your elders.

Nor can any man restrain you, whether dear or odious to you, from this sorrowful path. There you rush on the wave; there on the water streams: 15 from the miserable you flourish.

You place yourselves in the sea-street; you oppress with your hands; you glide over the ocean through the waves of its seas.

The fury of the winter rages, yet on the watery domain seven nights have ye toiled. Through the frail mantle of the quivering flesh Drove with continuous wound.

Ihr da aus Übermuth Untiefen prüftet und aus Tollmuth ihr in tiefem Wasser das Leben wagtet; liesset keinen, nicht Freund noch Feind, da fernen euch von der sorgvollen That, als zur See ihr rudertet.

Im Schwimmspiel überwand er dich: er hatte mehr der Macht; zur Morgenzeit trug ihn der Holm da zu den Headorämen.

Da hatte all sein Erbot wider dich vollbracht in Wahrheit Beanstans Sohn 4. Niemand konnte, nicht Freund, nicht Feind, des mühevollen Weges euch hindern.

Da schwammt ihr hinaus in See , wo ihr die wilde Flut mit Armen decktet, des Wassers Strassen masset und die Hände die Wogen werfen liesst; so glittet ihr hin übers Meer.

Die winterlichen Wellen, 67 sie giengen hoch. Der Tage sieben mühtet ihr euch im Wasser: jener überwand dich im Schwimmen, denn er hatte grössre Kraft.

Da trug die Hochflut ihn zur Morgenzeit auf zu den Hadorämen, von wo aus er, der seinem Volke liebe, seinen Erbsitz im Land der Brandinge, die schöne Burg erreichte.

Dort besass er Land und Leute und Schätze. Was er gegen dich gelobt, das hatte Beanstans Sohn fürwahr erfüllt. Da gebot er dem Volke 25 Schlossreich und schatzreich.

Wie geschworen, so hielt Sein Versprechen dir redlich der Sprössling des Bonstein. Nor hinder you could any friend or foe From that sad venture.

Never again shall corselet ring as help the warriors bear To comrades far. They mourned their king and chanted dirge, and much of him they said; His worthiness they praised, and judged his deeds with tender dread.

In the power of the waters Ye seven nights strove: he in swimming thee conquered, He had greater might. All his boast against thee The son of Beanstan truly fulfilled.

Sedan vid morgontiden Bar hafvet upp honom till de krigiska rämerna. Hela sitt vad med dig Fullgjorde noga Beanstans son.

Hrothgar, helm Scyldinga, Hrothgar, crown of Scyldings. Unferth spoke up, Ecglaf his son, Who sat at the feet of the lord of the Scyldings, Opened the jousting the journey of Beowulf, Sea-farer doughty, gave sorrow to Unferth 5 And greatest chagrin, too, for granted he never That any man else on earth should attain to, Gain under heaven, more glory than he : Did you take part in a swimming-match with Breca?

In care of the waters? And no one was able Nor lief nor loth one, in the least to dissuade you Your difficult voyage; then ye ventured a-swimming, 15 Where your arms outstretching the streams ye did cover, The mere-ways measured, mixing and stirring them, Glided the ocean; angry the waves were, With the weltering of winter.

Had borough and jewels. The pledge that he made thee The son of Beanstan hath soothly accomplished. Then I ween thou wilt find thee less fortunate issue, Though ever triumphant in onset of battle, A grim grappling, if Grendel thou darest 30 For the space of a night near-by to wait for!

The atheling of Geatmen uttered these words and Heroic did hasten. Gave me willingly to see on the wall a Heavy old hand-sword. The man was so dear that he failed to suppress the Emotions that moved him.

Zu hoch vermass sich da Dein Mut! Die Fahrt, die schreckensvolle, nicht Freund noch Feind verleiden Euch konnte.

Also triebet im Sund dahin ihr Beiden! Wie hold dem König war Sein Volk! Geen stervling was in staat, noch vriend noch vijand, De roekelooze reis u af te raden.

Toen braakt gij beiden roeiend door de baren En dektet onder uwen arm de deining, Gij maat de zeebahn , zwaaiend met de handen, Doorgleedt de waterwieling, schoon met golven De kil opklotste bij des winters branding.

Doch gene ging in vaart u ver te boven; Hij had toch meerder macht. Here are the other available parts, you can also see their resolution or open the gallery then save the images at full resolution.

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MISTRESSES STAFFEL 4 save the last dance 1 geht der Promi Save the last dance.

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