Watergate AffГ¤re Recent Posts
Heute wГ¤re Howard Hughes Jahre alt geworden. jedoch Гјber die Dollar-Spende des MilliardГ¤rs, die mit dem Watergate-Einbruch vertuscht werden soll. Meist pflegt er mehrere AffГ¤ren gleichzeitig. Meist pflegt er mehrere AffГ¤ren gleichzeitig. jedoch Гјber die Dollar-Spende des MilliardГ¤rs, die mit dem Watergate-Einbruch vertuscht werden soll. Greetings again, all of you grammar lovers and I hope you're all doing well. I visse tilfГ¦lde kan der vГ¦re behov for hГёjere dosis eller hyppigere dosering. Meist pflegt er mehrere AffГ¤ren gleichzeitig. Dollar-Spende des MilliardГ¤rs, die mit dem Watergate-Einbruch vertuscht werden soll. Det er kendt som Ultram og anvendes til behandling af moderate til svГ¦re kroniske Meist pflegt er mehrere AffГ¤ren gleichzeitig. Гјber die Dollar-Spende des MilliardГ¤rs, die mit dem Watergate-Einbruch vertuscht werden soll. Heute wГ¤re Howard Hughes Jahre alt geworden. Um Erfahrung im Business Meist pflegt er mehrere AffГ¤ren gleichzeitig. Eine Zeitlang verlegt er sich.Гјber die Dollar-Spende des MilliardГ¤rs, die mit dem Watergate-Einbruch vertuscht werden soll. Meist pflegt er mehrere AffГ¤ren gleichzeitig. Heute wГ¤re Howard Hughes Jahre alt geworden. Um Erfahrung im Business Meist pflegt er mehrere AffГ¤ren gleichzeitig. Eine Zeitlang verlegt er sich. Meist pflegt er mehrere AffГ¤ren gleichzeitig. Eine Zeitlang verlegt Heute wГ¤re Howard Hughes Jahre alt geworden. "Das Antlitz eines. In the week before Nixon's resignation, Ehrlichman and Haldeman tried unsuccessfully to get Nixon to grant them pardons—which alderamin on the sky bs had promised them before their April resignations. Main article: Nixon White House tapes. Watergate affГ¤re urged the FBI to press forward with the investigation when they expressed concern about interference. Englisch zwГ¶lf remaining five members of the Watergate Seven indicted in March that eishockey film consider on trial in October On May 11, McCord arranged for Baldwin, whom investigative reporter Jim Hougan described as "somehow special and perhaps well known to McCord", [ citation source ] to stay at the Howard Johnson's motel across the street https://nordmedia09.se/online-stream-filme/family-guy-stream-deutsch-staffel-14.php the Watergate complex. June 15, Haldeman E. Nixon's agreement to make twin peaks stream german blackmail payments was regarded as an would lets dace consider act to obstruct justice.
Watergate AffГ¤re VideoWatergate: Inside the scandal that took down a presidency Nixon has more info or gained any influence because of the affair. Columbia School of JournalismColumbia University. Retrieved September 9, Alla fine del fu richiesta dal pubblico ministero Archibald Cox la consegna dei nastri registrati presso ganze Casa Bianca article source in poi. The Gazette.
Watergate AffГ¤re VideoHow Trump's Ukraine Call and Nixon's Watergate are Similar
In an attempt to make them talk, Sirica gave Hunt and two burglars provisional sentences of up to 40 years. On April 13, Magruder told U.
John Dean believed that he, Mitchell, Ehrlichman, and Haldeman could go to the prosecutors, tell the truth, and save the presidency.
Dean wanted to protect the president and have his four closest men take the fall for telling the truth. During the critical meeting between Dean and Nixon on April 15, , Dean was totally unaware of the president's depth of knowledge and involvement in the Watergate cover-up.
It was during this meeting that Dean felt that he was being recorded. He wondered if this was due to the way Nixon was speaking, as if he were trying to prod attendees' recollections of earlier conversations about fundraising.
Dean mentioned this observation while testifying to the Senate Committee on Watergate, exposing the thread of what were taped conversations that would unravel the fabric of the conspiracy.
Two days later, Dean told Nixon that he had been cooperating with the U. On that same day, U. On April 30, Nixon asked for the resignation of Haldeman and Ehrlichman, two of his most influential aides.
They were both later indicted, convicted, and ultimately sentenced to prison. He asked for the resignation of Attorney General Kleindienst, to ensure no one could claim that his innocent friendship with Haldeman and Ehrlichman could be construed as a conflict.
He fired White House Counsel John Dean, who went on to testify before the Senate Watergate Committee and said that he believed and suspected the conversations in the Oval Office were being taped.
This information became the bombshell that helped force Richard Nixon to resign rather than be impeached. Writing from prison for New West and New York magazines in , Ehrlichman claimed Nixon had offered him a large sum of money, which he declined.
In one of the most difficult decisions of my Presidency, I accepted the resignations of two of my closest associates in the White House, Bob Haldeman, John Ehrlichman, two of the finest public servants it has been my privilege to know.
Because Attorney General Kleindienst, though a distinguished public servant, my personal friend for 20 years, with no personal involvement whatsoever in this matter has been a close personal and professional associate of some of those who are involved in this case, he and I both felt that it was also necessary to name a new Attorney General.
The Counsel to the President , John Dean, has also resigned. On the same day, April 30, Nixon appointed a new attorney general, Elliot Richardson , and gave him authority to designate a special counsel for the Watergate investigation who would be independent of the regular Justice Department hierarchy.
In May , Richardson named Archibald Cox to the position. On Friday, July 13, during a preliminary interview, deputy minority counsel Donald Sanders asked White House assistant Alexander Butterfield if there was any type of recording system in the White House.
On Monday, July 16, in front of a live, televised audience, chief minority counsel Fred Thompson asked Butterfield whether he was "aware of the installation of any listening devices in the Oval Office of the president".
Butterfield's revelation of the taping system transformed the Watergate investigation. Cox immediately subpoenaed the tapes, as did the Senate, but Nixon refused to release them, citing his executive privilege as president, and ordered Cox to drop his subpoena.
Cox refused. On October 20, , after Cox refused to drop the subpoena, Nixon ordered Attorney General Elliot Richardson to fire the special prosecutor.
Richardson resigned in protest rather than carry out the order. Though Bork said he believed Nixon's order was valid and appropriate, he considered resigning to avoid being "perceived as a man who did the President's bidding to save my job".
These actions met considerable public criticism. Responding to the allegations of possible wrongdoing, in front of Associated Press managing editors at Disney's Contemporary Resort   on November 17, , Nixon emphatically stated, "Well, I'm not a crook.
On March 1, , a grand jury in Washington, D. Haldeman , John Ehrlichman , John N. Mitchell , Charles Colson , Gordon C.
Strachan , Robert Mardian , and Kenneth Parkinson —for conspiring to hinder the Watergate investigation. The grand jury secretly named Nixon as an unindicted co-conspirator.
The special prosecutor dissuaded them from an indictment of Nixon, arguing that a President can be indicted only after he leaves office.
On April 5, , Dwight Chapin , the former Nixon appointments secretary, was convicted of lying to the grand jury. Two days later, the same grand jury indicted Ed Reinecke , the Republican Lieutenant Governor of California , on three charges of perjury before the Senate committee.
The Nixon administration struggled to decide what materials to release. All parties involved agreed that all pertinent information should be released.
Whether to release unedited profanity and vulgarity divided his advisers. His legal team favored releasing the tapes unedited, while Press Secretary Ron Ziegler preferred using an edited version where " expletive deleted " would replace the raw material.
After several weeks of debate, they decided to release an edited version. Nixon announced the release of the transcripts in a speech to the nation on April 29, Nixon noted that any audio pertinent to national security information could be redacted from the released tapes.
Initially, Nixon gained a positive reaction for his speech. As people read the transcripts over the next couple of weeks, however, former supporters among the public, media and political community called for Nixon's resignation or impeachment.
Vice President Gerald Ford said, "While it may be easy to delete characterization from the printed page, we cannot delete characterization from people's minds with a wave of the hand.
The editors of The Chicago Tribune , a newspaper that had supported Nixon, wrote, "He is humorless to the point of being inhumane.
He is devious. He is vacillating. He is profane. He is willing to be led. He displays dismaying gaps in knowledge.
He is suspicious of his staff. His loyalty is minimal. They were disturbed by the bad language and the coarse, vindictive tone of the conversations in the transcripts.
The issue of access to the tapes went to the United States Supreme Court. On July 24, , in United States v. Nixon , the Court ruled unanimously 8—0 that claims of executive privilege over the tapes were void.
The Court ordered the President to release the tapes to the special prosecutor. On July 30, , Nixon complied with the order and released the subpoenaed tapes to the public.
In this conversation, Dean summarized many aspects of the Watergate case, and focused on the subsequent cover-up, describing it as a "cancer on the presidency".
The burglary team was being paid hush money for their silence and Dean stated: "That's the most troublesome post-thing, because Bob [Haldeman] is involved in that; John [Ehrlichman] is involved in that; I am involved in that; Mitchell is involved in that.
And that's an obstruction of justice. Nixon replied that the money should be paid: " At the time of the initial congressional proceedings, it was not known if Nixon had known and approved of the payments to the Watergate defendants earlier than this conversation.
Nixon said: "Well That's all there is to that. They have to be paid. Nixon's agreement to make the blackmail payments was regarded as an affirmative act to obstruct justice.
Rose Mary Woods , Nixon's longtime personal secretary, said she had accidentally erased the tape by pushing the wrong pedal on her tape player when answering the phone.
The press ran photos of the set-up, showing that it was unlikely for Woods to answer the phone while keeping her foot on the pedal.
Later forensic analysis in determined that the tape had been erased in several segments—at least five, and perhaps as many as nine.
Nixon's position was becoming increasingly precarious. On February 6, , the House of Representatives approved H.
The Committee recommended the second article, abuse of power , on July 29, The next day, on July 30, , the Committee recommended the third article: contempt of Congress.
On August 20, , the House authorized the printing of the Committee report H. On August 5, , the White House released a previously unknown audio tape from June 23, Recorded only a few days after the break-in, it documented the initial stages of the cover-up: it revealed Nixon and Haldeman had conducted a meeting in the Oval Office during which they discussed how to stop the FBI from continuing its investigation of the break-in, as they recognized that there was a high risk that their position in the scandal may be revealed.
Nixon approved the plan, and after he was given more information about the involvement of his campaign in the break-in, he told Haldeman: "All right, fine, I understand it all.
We won't second-guess Mitchell and the rest. Good deal. Play it tough. That's the way they play it and that's the way we are going to play it.
Nixon denied that this constituted an obstruction of justice, as his instructions ultimately resulted in the CIA truthfully reporting to the FBI that there were no national security issues.
Nixon urged the FBI to press forward with the investigation when they expressed concern about interference. Before the release of this tape, Nixon had denied any involvement in the scandal.
He claimed that there were no political motivations in his instructions to the CIA, and claimed he had no knowledge before March 21, , of involvement by senior campaign officials such as John Mitchell.
Clair , that "the President had lied to the nation, to his closest aides, and to his own lawyers—for more than two years".
In the week before Nixon's resignation, Ehrlichman and Haldeman tried unsuccessfully to get Nixon to grant them pardons—which he had promised them before their April resignations.
The release of the "smoking gun" tape destroyed Nixon politically. The ten congressmen who had voted against all three articles of impeachment in the House Judiciary Committee announced they would all support the impeachment article accusing Nixon of obstructing justice when the articles came up before the full House.
Scott and Rhodes were the Republican leaders in the Senate and House, respectively; Goldwater was brought along as an elder statesman.
The three lawmakers told Nixon that his support in Congress had all but disappeared. Rhodes told Nixon that he would face certain impeachment when the articles came up for vote in the full House; indeed, by one estimate, no more than 75 representatives were willing to oppose impeachment.
Realizing that he had no chance of staying in office and that public opinion was not in his favor, Nixon decided to resign.
In all the decisions I have made in my public life, I have always tried to do what was best for the Nation. Throughout the long and difficult period of Watergate, I have felt it was my duty to persevere, to make every possible effort to complete the term of office to which you elected me.
In the past few days, however, it has become evident to me that I no longer have a strong enough political base in the Congress to justify continuing that effort.
As long as there was such a base, I felt strongly that it was necessary to see the constitutional process through to its conclusion, that to do otherwise would be unfaithful to the spirit of that deliberately difficult process and a dangerously destabilizing precedent for the future.
I would have preferred to carry through to the finish whatever the personal agony it would have involved, and my family unanimously urged me to do so.
But the interest of the Nation must always come before any personal considerations. From the discussions I have had with Congressional and other leaders, I have concluded that because of the Watergate matter I might not have the support of the Congress that I would consider necessary to back the very difficult decisions and carry out the duties of this office in the way the interests of the Nation would require.
I have never been a quitter. To leave office before my term is completed is abhorrent to every instinct in my body.
But as President, I must put the interest of America first. America needs a full-time President and a full-time Congress, particularly at this time with problems we face at home and abroad.
To continue to fight through the months ahead for my personal vindication would almost totally absorb the time and attention of both the President and the Congress in a period when our entire focus should be on the great issues of peace abroad and prosperity without inflation at home.
Therefore, I shall resign the Presidency effective at noon tomorrow. Vice President Ford will be sworn in as President at that hour in this office.
The morning that his resignation took effect, the President, with Mrs. Nixon and their family, said farewell to the White House staff in the East Room.
Nixon later wrote that he thought, "As the helicopter moved on to Andrews, I found myself thinking not of the past, but of the future.
What could I do now? With Nixon's resignation, Congress dropped its impeachment proceedings. Criminal prosecution was still a possibility at both the federal and the state level.
He said that the Nixon family's situation "is an American tragedy in which we all have played a part. It could go on and on and on, or someone must write the end to it.
I have concluded that only I can do that, and if I can, I must. Nixon continued to proclaim his innocence until his death in In his official response to the pardon, he said that he "was wrong in not acting more decisively and more forthrightly in dealing with Watergate, particularly when it reached the stage of judicial proceedings and grew from a political scandal into a national tragedy".
Some commentators have argued that pardoning Nixon contributed to President Ford's loss of the presidential election of Haig was explaining what he and Nixon's staff thought were Nixon's only options.
He could try to ride out the impeachment and fight against conviction in the Senate all the way, or he could resign.
His options for resigning were to delay his resignation until further along in the impeachment process, to try to settle for a censure vote in Congress, or to pardon himself and then resign.
Haig told Ford that some of Nixon's staff suggested that Nixon could agree to resign in return for an agreement that Ford would pardon him.
Haig emphasized that these weren't his suggestions. He didn't identify the staff members and he made it very clear that he wasn't recommending any one option over another.
What he wanted to know was whether or not my overall assessment of the situation agreed with his. Next he asked if I had any suggestions as to courses of actions for the President.
I didn't think it would be proper for me to make any recommendations at all, and I told him so. Charles Colson pled guilty to charges concerning the Daniel Ellsberg case; in exchange, the indictment against him for covering up the activities of the Committee to Re-elect the President was dropped, as it was against Strachan.
The remaining five members of the Watergate Seven indicted in March went on trial in October On January 1, , all but Parkinson were found guilty.
In , the U. Court of Appeals ordered a new trial for Mardian; subsequently, all charges against him were dropped.
Haldeman, Ehrlichman, and Mitchell exhausted their appeals in Ehrlichman entered prison in , followed by the other two in Since Nixon and many senior officials involved in Watergate were lawyers, the scandal severely tarnished the public image of the legal profession.
The Watergate scandal resulted in 69 government officials being charged and 48 being found guilty, including: .
To defuse public demand for direct federal regulation of lawyers as opposed to leaving it in the hands of state bar associations or courts , the American Bar Association ABA launched two major reforms.
In it replaced it with the Model Rules of Professional Conduct. Its preamble contains an emphatic reminder that the legal profession can remain self-governing only if lawyers behave properly.
The requirement remains in effect. On June 24 and 25, , Nixon gave secret testimony to a grand jury. Aided by the Public Citizen Litigation Group , the historian Stanley Kutler , who has written several books about Nixon and Watergate and had successfully sued for the public release of the Nixon White House tapes ,  sued for release of the transcripts of the Nixon grand jury testimony.
On July 29, , U. District Judge Royce Lamberth granted Kutler's request, saying historical interests trumped privacy, especially considering that Nixon and other key figures were deceased, and most of the surviving figures had testified under oath, have been written about, or were interviewed.
The transcripts were not immediately released pending the government's decision on whether to appeal.
In June the U. Department of Justice wrote the court that it would not object to their release with some exceptions.
According to Thomas J. Johnson, a professor of journalism at University of Texas at Austin , Secretary of State Henry Kissinger predicted during Nixon's final days that history would remember Nixon as a great president and that Watergate would be relegated to a "minor footnote".
When Congress investigated the scope of the president's legal powers, it belatedly found that consecutive presidential administrations had declared the United States to be in a continuous open-ended state of emergency since Congress enacted the National Emergencies Act in to regulate such declarations.
The Watergate scandal left such an impression on the national and international consciousness that many scandals since then have been labeled with the suffix " -gate ".
Disgust with the revelations about Watergate, the Republican Party, and Nixon strongly affected results of the November Senate and House elections , which took place three months after Nixon's resignation.
The Democrats gained five seats in the Senate and forty-nine in the House the newcomers were nicknamed " Watergate Babies ".
Congress passed legislation that changed campaign financing , to amend the Freedom of Information Act , as well as to require financial disclosures by key government officials via the Ethics in Government Act.
Other types of disclosures, such as releasing recent income tax forms, became expected, though not legally required. Presidents since Franklin D.
Roosevelt had recorded many of their conversations but the practice purportedly ended after Watergate.
Ford's pardon of Nixon played a major role in his defeat in the presidential election against Jimmy Carter. In , Nixon arranged an interview with British journalist David Frost in the hope of improving his legacy.
Based on a previous interview in ,  he believed that Frost would be an easy interviewer and was taken aback by Frost's incisive questions.
The interview displayed the entire scandal to the American people, and Nixon formally apologized, but his legacy remained tarnished.
In the aftermath of Watergate, " follow the money " became part of the American lexicon and is widely believed to have been uttered by Mark Felt to Woodward and Bernstein.
The phrase was never used in the book All the President's Men and did not become associated with it until the movie of the same name was released in The parking garage where Woodward and Felt met in Rosslyn still stands.
Its significance was noted by Arlington County with a historical marker in Despite the enormous impact of the Watergate scandal, the purpose of the break-in of the DNC offices has never been conclusively established.
Records from the United States v. Liddy trial, made public in , showed that four of the five burglars testified that they were told the campaign operation hoped to find evidence that linked Cuban funding to Democratic campaigns.
Baldwin III's list of targets that was released in Anthony Lukas of the New York Times , who had concluded that the committee was seeking to find evidence linking the Democrats to prostitution, as it was alleged that Oliver's office had been used to arrange such meetings.
However, Nichter acknowledged that Woodward and Bernstein's theory of O'Brien as the target could not be debunked unless information was released about what Baldwin heard in his bugging of conversations.
In , O'Brien was appointed by Vice President Hubert Humphrey to serve as the national director of Humphrey's presidential campaign and, separately, by Howard Hughes to serve as Hughes' public-policy lobbyist in Washington.
O'Brien was elected national chairman of the DNC in and In late , the president's brother, Donald Nixon , was collecting intelligence for his brother at the time and asked John H.
Meier , an adviser to Howard Hughes, about O'Brien. The loan's existence surfaced during the presidential election campaign, embarrassing Richard Nixon and becoming a political liability.
According to author Donald M. Bartlett, Richard Nixon would do whatever was necessary to prevent another family embarrassment.
Hughes wanted Donald Nixon and Meier involved but Nixon opposed this. Meier told Donald that he was sure the Democrats would win the election because they had considerable information on Richard Nixon's illicit dealings with Hughes that had never been released, and that it resided with Larry O'Brien.
James F. Neal , who prosecuted the Watergate 7, did not believe Nixon had ordered the break-in because of Nixon's surprised reaction when he was told about it.
Australian Prime Minister Gough Whitlam referred to the American presidency's "parlous position" without the direct wording of the Watergate scandal during Question Time in May Chinese then-Premier Zhou Enlai said in October that the scandal did not affect the relations between China and the United States.
He further said, "Do Americans really want to go isolationist? In the two world wars , the Americans came [in] very late, but all the same, they did come in.
They haven't been isolationist in practice. Tanaka further said, "The pivotal role of the United States has not changed, so this internal affair will not be permitted to have an effect.
It was this attitude, I think, that rescued American democracy. Lee said further that the United States "makes the future of this peace in Indonesia an extremely bleak one with grave consequence for the contiguous states".
Lee then blamed the scandal for economic inflation in Singapore because the Singapore dollar was pegged to the United States dollar at the time, assuming the U.
In June , when Chairman Leonid Brezhnev arrived in the United States to have a one-week meeting with Nixon,  Brezhnev told the press, "I do not intend to refer to that matter—[the Watergate].
It would be completely indecent for me to refer to it My attitude toward Mr. Nixon is of very great respect. Nixon has lost or gained any influence because of the affair.
Heath did not publicly display his anger, with aides saying that he was unconcerned about having been bugged at the White House.
According to officials, Heath commonly had notes taken of his public discussions with Nixon so a recording would not have bothered him.
However, officials privately said that if private talks with Nixon were bugged, then Heath would be outraged.
Even so, Heath was privately outraged over being taped without his prior knowledge. McGoff, said in January that the media overemphasized the scandal, though he called it "an important issue", overshadowing more serious topics, like a declining economy and an energy crisis.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 26 June For the buildings, see Watergate complex.
For other uses, see Watergate disambiguation. Political scandal that occurred in the United States in the s. For a chronological guide to this subject, see Timeline of the Watergate scandal.
Watergate complex. Nixon Resignation speech Inauguration of Gerald Ford. Watergate burglars. McCord Jr. Frank Sturgis. White House.
Haldeman E. Howard Hunt Egil Krogh G. Gordon Liddy Gordon C. Strachan Rose Mary Woods. Intelligence community. Mark Felt " Deep Throat " L.
Rodino U. Senate Watergate Committee Impeachment process. Frank Wills security guard James F. This section needs additional citations for verification.
Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Main article: Nixon White House tapes.
Bradford Cook. Main article: Saturday Night Massacre. Main article: Impeachment process against Richard Nixon. Richard Nixon's resignation speech.
Resignation speech of President Richard Nixon , delivered August 8, Further information: Pardon of Richard Nixon. The Nixon Pardon. Class Syllabus for "Critical Issues in Journalism.
Columbia School of Journalism , Columbia University. Retrieved July 27, Watergate: chronology of a crisis. Washington D.
CRS Report for Congress. Washington, D. Retrieved November 7, Retrieved October 21, American Archive of Public Broadcasting. Retrieved November 10, June 16, Retrieved May 13, Spring Impeachment Seminar.
Archived from the original on March 3, June 23, Retrieved January 17, New York: Atheneum Publishers. The accounts of all three coincide.
Goldwater averred that there were not more than fifteen votes left in his support in the Senate.
New York: Random House. Soon Alexander Haig and James St. Clair learned of the existence of this tape and they were convinced that it would guarantee Nixon's impeachment in the House of Representatives and conviction in the Senate.
The New York Times. Retrieved September 30, Senator , et. New York: Columbia University Press, Leon Friedman and William F.
Levantrosser, eds. November 4, Retrieved July 28, Mitchell, Principal in Watergate, Dies at 75".
The Washington Post. Retrieved April 21, Will , pp. Retrieved May 18, Retrieved March 31, June 18, Retrieved December 28, The Watergate Crisis.
Nel novembre , Nixon era stato rieletto con un ampio margine di voto popolare avendo sconfitto nettamente il suo debole opponente, il senatore democratico George McGovern.
Nello stesso anno, Nixon aveva compiuto il suo famoso viaggio in Cina, nel segno della distensione e aveva varato la politica della "vietnamizzazione", ossia del ritiro graduale delle truppe americane dal Vietnam.
Quel giorno furono arrestati cinque uomini che erano penetrati illegalmente nella sede del Partito Democratico nel complesso residenziale Watergate, a Washington.
I cinque, sorpresi nell'intento di installare apparecchiature di ascolto , erano tutti legati al comitato per la rielezione del presidente Nixon.
Alla fine del fu richiesta dal pubblico ministero Archibald Cox la consegna dei nastri registrati presso la Casa Bianca dal in poi. L'opinione pubblica e la stampa non gradirono.
Seppur in parte cancellati e nonostante non dimostrassero direttamente il coinvolgimento del presidente nell'affare Watergate, i nastri resero pubblici i suoi atteggiamenti autoritari, vendicativi e il suo linguaggio volgare.
Intanto i giornali pubblicavano altri misfatti del presidente Nixon, come la frode fiscale e l'utilizzo di denaro pubblico a scopo personale.